How Herd Immunity Plays Out in Epidemic Hit Communities?
By E. Kalair, N. Abas, N. Khan, Comsats, 2/4/20
Apr 3, 2020 - 3:04:05 PM
Herd immunity means automatic evaporation of contagious disease by population’s collective immunity against the disease. Covid-19 pandemic is reminiscent of lack of resistance against this virus in certain communities, compared to others. Covid-19 geographical maps reveal that spreads easily at 37 to 63 degrees. ECDC map shows the communities having resistance against malaria have suffered less with Covid-19 disease than others. British malaria resistance and European Covid-19 map tell whole story.
Europe, United Kingdom and United States have done more inventions and discoveries in medical science than other countries. We wonder why more Covid-19 cases are emerging in EU, UK and USA? We see collective role of climate, malaria resistance and isolation tactics on Covid-19 spread. Scientific reports reveal some countries have more resistance against malaria than others [Susan 2008].
World map showing malaria resistance [Susan 2008]
It is very strange to note the coronavirus affected countries like China, Europe, United Kingdom, Australia and America had lesser herd immunity against malaria and Covid-19.
Covid-19 hit countries [ECDC, 2020]
Comparison of above two global maps shows the colder countries having little resistance against malaria have little immunity against covid-19 pandemic. SARS-Cov and MERS-CoV viruses emerged in autumn, peaked in spring and petered out in summer months. SARS-CoV2 has also emerged sometimes in middle of November 2020 and is most likely to fizzle out in summer. Mosquito disappear at 37-63 degrees during which coronavirus nurtures. There are 8 to 9 Covid-19 strains that might have changed their phase and forms to adapt to local temperatures. A doctor from New York prescribes use of 1. Hydroxychloroquine 200mg twice a day for 5 days, 2. Azithromycin 500mg once a day for 5 days, and 3. Zinc sulfate 220mg once a day for 5 days under doctor’s supervision to treat high risk (>60, immunocompromised) coronavirus patients [Vladimir 2020].
World Health Organization (WHO) advises to trace, track and treat (T3) strategy. WHO also advises to wash hands for 20 seconds, avoid touching mouth and nose eyes. Health authorities are trying to investigate, isolate and immune (I3) people to reduce spread of disease. Herd immunity means automatic evaporation of infection or contagious disease by community immunity. Health authorities sometimes let the virus fizzle out using herd immunity. Covid-19 has undergone 8 to 9 mutations in different countries so its structure may be 5 to 10% different in every community. No vaccine is available in market even after invention it would be debatable, whether vaccine for one strain will be good for other or not? Covid-19 has already infected more than one million people worldwide, out of which more than 50,000 have died and more than 200,000 recovered. Based on closed cases data the death rate was 41% at start, 5% on 6 March and 20% on 3 April 2020. Active cases are 95% mild (cough & fever etc.) and 5% critical (require hospitalization or ventilators). The good thing is 80% Covid-19 patients have recovered automatically or by treatment. South Korea and China have harnessed Covid-19 disease by testing and isolating patients at speed greater than its spreading rate. United States of America has accelerated testing rates and India relies on herd immunity. Italy, Spain and UK have suffered severely due to slow testing speeds and late start of social distancing and lockdown strategies.
Viral and contagious diseases have always been coming and will continue in future. New diseases spillover from animals to humans due to changing climates and cultures. Our first line of defense is our own body response, second is herd immunity and third vaccines or antiviral drugs. Nature has design human body to thrive and survive at its own. Ancient people used to live in small groups in remote places. All of them used to live on natural fruits, fresh airs, green forests and blue waters. They used to suffer from various viral and bacterial diseases and develop immunities after recoveries. They started hunting animals and fishing to increase diversity of foods, but they had their local pleasures and worries. They took thousands of years to learn how to live in towns and cities. Then they started competitions for economic, political and religious supremacies. Agriculture, science and industrial revolutions paved the way to live in comfortable urban and rural communities. Human hidden desire to become global power ended up in wars. Mongolians killed millions of people and WW-II ended up in nuclear bombing. Business replaced barter, metal and paper notes with digital currencies for virtual economy and online transactions. Race, color and faith prides encouraged them to lock weaker communities into their homes on their own lands. British Empire, Soviet Union and America surrendered in Afghanistan one after other without learning any lesson. Coronavirus came like a bolt out of blue sky to push the modern civilization back to Stone Ages. Coronavirus affects everyone without distinguishing white, black, brown and yellows. Today world community is locked into their homes from fear of microbes, not missiles.
Coronavirus has shut down factories, business outlets, railways, motorways, airlines, schools, colleges, universities, research centers, mosques, temples, churches, pubs, brothels, supply chain systems, basic life lines, sports, economic activities and group prayers. Health systems are overstretched worldwide and virologists are worried on changing strains of SARS-CoV2. Pharmacists need years to develop vaccines, biologists need weeks to recognize strains and coronavirus changes its phase in hours. SARS-CoV had two strains and SARS-CoV2 has so far eight strains. Earlier mutated fast, but later mutates slowly as it has no fear of evolution risks. It appears the virus knows human technology cannot overcome it. Earlier philosophers used to say “united we stand and divided we fall” and modern philosophers think “scattered we survive and together we fall prey to virus”. Those who had no time to think of purpose behind their creation, have ample time to ponder and meditate. Those who were claiming to give life to hundred years old dead using their genes and reverse aging process are scratching the heads how coronavirus managed to jump to humans through animals. Human civilization needs to learn that they can gather goods and things for hundreds of years yet they cannot forecast their own next breath.
Coronavirus has killed more than 35,000 infected more than 750,000 worldwide. Rich nations proud of their development are suffering more than the underdeveloped countries. USA, Italy, China, Spain, China, Germany, France, Iran and UK have more morbidities and fatalities than African and Asian countries. Virus can survive from 3 to 17 days on things that is key tactic of its severity. It is true the food comes first and morality later, yet there is no point in imposing sanctions on pandemic hit countries. Do not challenge the God for your betterment. Dinosaurs, pharaohs and Roman considered themselves superpowers but tides of time have buried them in ground, geologists spend years to find their fossils. Covid-19 is pandemic having inborne opportunity for you to surrender to God. Covid-19 has killed many yet the annual deaths due to overeating are still more than all epidemics together. Nature wants you do social justice with in your communities. Covid-19 has halted changing climate, reduced air pollution and let the extinct species come out which had hidden from your fear. GHG emissions are minimal, ozone layer is reappearing and dolphins are returning to sea sides. Nature warns us all to live and let live. If we continue disturbing equilibrium among ecosystems then nature may settle on a new equilibrium, you may not be its part.
When epidemics and natural disasters come human behavior is according to his/her believe. Believers turn to mercy of God and atheists look at their own weapons which work no against invisible coronavirus. You have atom bombs that you cannot detonate against viruses hidden inside your bodies. You have been giving 2% of GDP to health and 50% to military that now cannot fight against this tiny creature. People today fear from microbes, not missiles. Group worship practices in mosques, churches, synagogues, temples and shrines are being assumed corona clusters. Birth, marriage and death ceremonies are on hold from fear of spreading disease. Many countries have banned Friday and Sunday prayers as India and Pakistan found corona viruses in preachers. Coronavirus has separated mothers from children, sisters from brothers and parents from their children. Wives are no more permitted to mourn on husband’s dead body. The elders in homes have been locked in separate cells in their own homes. Followers fear from leaders in worship place, patients fear from coughing doctors, husbands fear from wives and vice versa. Covid-19 has brought revolutionary changes in cultures, religious practices and major economies. Oil, gas, coal and electricity have plummeted down to lowest prices, food and health chains have gone overstretched worldwide. In past, media and civil society used to protest against curfews, now all of them are requesting for longer lockdowns. Hospitals, research centers, worship places, palaces, courts and cantonments have become unsafe. Face masks do not even let you cry at distance from fear of viruses. This is trailer of Judgement Day when your organs will tell the crimes you committed in life.
Viruses and germs may enter human body through seven natural holes. There are many viruses and germs in environment out of which 196 can easily pass through our seven natural holes. Our natural immunity renders them harmless. Human immunity peaks after sleep in morning and declines with passage of time. Islam recommends to have a nap in afternoon to boost the body immunity. Viruses and germs attack our bodies in afternoon especially at dusk when dengue appears. It is better to sleep early at night and rise early before sunup. Stop eating after first belch as we eat live not live to eat. Kissing culture and brothels have accelerated Covid-19 disease in western countries. Coronavirus capability to ride on aerosols makes it even more dangerous. It can reach your home even during lockdown through fruits, grocery, newspapers, utility bills and currency notes. Computer viruses can be removed using antivirus, but SARS-CoV2 viruses have neither any vaccine nor antiviral drugs. Wars and pandemics boost inventions and discoveries. Wise people keep an eye on past to make strategies for future. Centuries old passive immunization methods are being considered to treat covid-19 patients. Coronavirus has done for Islam what 57 Islamic countries could not do. World has realized the difference between hilal and haram meats. Islam declared swine, bat and cats haram which are secondary hosts between bats and humans. Islam advises to cut animal throat veins in the name of God, not all the neck, so that all the animal blood is well drained. Islam recommends to wash hands, face, nose, throat and feet at least thrice five times a day. It is also necessary to clean hair and neck with wet hands to remove aerial depositions. Couple must take bath after copulation before prayer. It might be more hygienic to take bath before and after copulation. Islam says cleanliness is half of your faith. Kissing on roads is strictly forbidden like relations outside marriage. Muslims cut nails/extra hair once a week, clean teach daily and wash anus with water every time you visit toilet. Nail coloring and lengthening practices enhances viral transmission. Alcohol drinking is forbidden, but alcoholic drugs such as hands sanitizers may be used like cough syroups. Remove underneath hair periodically. Use of toilet paper is cause of underneath smell and several diseases. Paper mud pieces may be used if water is not available on site. Clean is again as soon as water becomes available. West needs to redesign toilet system to enhance hygiene and real cleanliness. This is minor difference between Islam and other school of thoughts, the fundamental difference is to believe in one God (Allah) as creator of cosmos. Islam forbids from usury, drugs and drinking for social justice with community. Those who do not want to follow Islamic faith, as it is not easy to change religions, may at least consider to adopt Islamic hygienic and food system. Do not give examples of Muslim practices as they have built W&C inside mosques which should be far away.
Social distancing, quarantining, isolation, lockdown and curfew are ideal solutions of covid-19 pandemic. Kings, Princes and Prime Ministers are getting infections due to random public interfaces. Health systems are overstretching worldwide due to rampant rise in corona cases. Healthcare defense line is under extreme pressure worldwide due to rising infection and death rates. Doctors and nurses must be equipped with personal protective equipment as they are front line soldiers in battle against Covid-19. Simulation modeling studies and Chinese experience point to strict enforcement of lockdown. Earlier the incumbents decide, the better it would be. Italy’s experience is a dire warning for all countries [Patrice 2020]. At least 2,629 health care workers—roughly 8.3 percent of all cases in Italy—have contracted COVID-19 from working with inadequate equipment or being exposed to asymptomatic carriers [Barbie 2020]. The US has no shortage of missiles, bombs, bullets, or chemical, biological, radiological, and other banned weapons to use against targeted adversaries at home and abroad. That’s not the case when it comes to providing vital healthcare for its citizens, including ventilators and protective gear for healthcare providers on the front lines of treating growing numbers of COVID-19 patients [Stephen 2020]. China has restored production lines to produce medical supplies. China is on learning curve, on matter of hunting wild animals, yet her experience is guideline for all countries.
Covid-19 took 66 days to infect first 100,000 people, 11 days to infect the second 100,000, 4 days to infect the third 100,000, 3 days to infect the fourth 100,000, 2 days to infect fifth 100,000 cases and 1.5 days to infect sixth 100,000, and 1 day to infect seventh 100,000 thousand. Social distancing and lockdown tactics must be strict else there could be more than 100,000 cases every next day. Covid-19 cases increased horizontally in January, linearly in February, exponentially in March and forecast to increase vertically in April 2020. It is time to flatten the curve to reduce rising death rates. 18% 82% 18% Graph
Data Source: https://www.worldometers.info/coronavirus/
Doctors have to stay inches away from blue face patients gasping for air 70 times a minute. Doctors have to put their face close to patients when they insert breathing tubes into their trachea, a wind pipe going to bronchi and bronchus lungs. They have to sit in a room flooded with coughing and sneezing patients for 60 hours in a weak. Incumbents should think of economy, but not expense of face masks. They have to decide who deserves a shot at life and who is to be allowed to die. Many doctors and nurses are complaining shortage of surgical face masks, what if they refuse to carry on their duties? How about the single mother of three? Or the deeply respected emergency medicine attending doctor? When we run out of ventilators ― and we will if we lift the social distancing restrictions that are in place and this pandemic continues to spread as it already has ― I will not be ready to make these decisions about who deserves to live and who deserves to die. When those moments come, I do not know how I will be able to sleep at night. Will you? [Rachel 2020].
White House and Senate agreed to $2 trillion rescue bill to protect Americans against Covid-19 pandemic. It is good if rescue package expedites delivery of personal protective equipment for doctors and nurses fighting on front line against coronavirus [Scot 2020]. Trump and Congress should also think of third world countries who have no funds to give such rescue package to their people. India might have far more Covid-19 cases than Italy and America, but it has no money to buy kits to test her people. Spanish flue pandemic killed 18 million people in 1912-19, now in 2020 India is far more crowded and rife with deadly diseases [Editor 2020]. Pakistan fears the first flood of Covid-19 came from Iran and second may come from India. Trump has imposed economic sanctions on Iran that has highest death rates in Asia. You have frozen her assets so that she may not be able to buy medicines for people. UN Human Rights groups, organizations and countries have asked US Administration to lift sanctions against Iran at least during Covid-19 pandemic [MEE 2020]. God does not take pity on people who take no pity on others.
Media outlets used to speculate WWW-111 between US vs. Iran, India vs. Pakistan and Russia vs. NATO, but a battle against an invisible foe that threatens us all and could theoretically infect every one of us without anyone else knowing until it’s too late. If WW-I is renamed as WWW-A and WW-II as WW-B then WW-III as WW-C has already started [Andrew 2020]. Coronavirus is increasing death toll at rate of about 1000 per day and new cases rising at rate of 20,000 to 30,000 per day rate. Aging people used to play role in soothing panic situations, who are upset themselves due to their own high mortality rates. Active covid-19 cases in Italy surpassed China on 20 March 2020. Our hearts were distant already, covid-19 barred handshake too. America has placed economic sanctions on half of world and Chinese doctors are helping Italy in battle against Covid-19. Economic sanctions against Iran during pandemic are crime against humanity. Public Health officials advise social distancing, quarantine and isolation practices to contain spread of coronavirus. Governments must go for strict lockdown before it gets too late.
Social distancing measures include limiting large groups of people coming together, closing buildings and canceling events. Several countries have started social distancing to stop spread of Covid-19 pandemic. Schools, festivals and conferences are postponed and collective prayers, shrine visits and shopping malls are banned. Public and private colleges as well as libraries may go online and business may be telecommuted. All indoor and outdoor events that attract large crowds would be cancelled. These events include sports events, concerts, parades and festivals. Mass transit systems may also be temporarily closed or be used only for essential travel. Infected people are quarantined in dedicated facilities instead of homes or hospitals [PHD 2020]. Quarantine is used to separate and restrict random movement of well persons who may have been exposed to a communicable disease to see if they become ill. These people may have been exposed to a disease and do not know it, or they may have the disease but do not show symptoms. Isolation is used to separate ill persons who have a communicable disease from those who are healthy. Isolation restricts the movement of ill persons to help stop the spread of certain diseases. Social distancing, quarantine and isolation practices can slow down pandemic.
Covid-19 epidemic started from Wet Animal Market of Wuhan China in middle of December 2020. Initially there were 7 to 8 death per day which increased to 140 to 150 by middle of February and 640 to 650 by middle of March 2020. WHO declared Covid-19 epidemic a pandemic on 11 March 2020. China and Italy started social distancing and community quarantining that was soon followed by many countries. China locked down one city and Italy locked down whole country that later expanded to whole of Europe. Health officials may ask police or military for strict compliance. America banned travel to China, Europe and UK. By the middle of March 2020 many countries started social distancing and community quarantining worldwide. Many countries are facing issues with closing worship places. Iran has closed shrines and KSA has banned pilgrimage. Mosques, temples and churches are being closed worldwide. Saudi Arabia and Iran are references for Muslims for reviewing worships in mosques and visits of shrines. A state television reporter who is also a medical doctor warned that the death toll could be as high as 3.5 million if worshipers continue forced entry into two Shiite shrines closed by the outbreak [Adam 2020].
Quarantine means a strict isolation imposed to prevent the spread of disease. It is a period, originally 40 days, of detention or isolation imposed upon ships, persons, animals, or plants on arrival at a port or place, when suspected of carrying some infectious or contagious disease. Quarantine is done by health authorities, mayors or governments to prevent the movement of those who may have been exposed to a communicable disease, but do not have a confirmed medical diagnosis. The term is similar to medical isolation, in which confirmed infected cases of communicable disease are isolated from the healthy population. Quarantine and isolation practices have been carried out throughout in human history. Under Mosaic Law in Leviticus priests used to quarantine suspects for seven days in 7th BC. Quarantine practices were common in Islamic world against leprosy from 7th to 19th centuries from Umayyad Caliphate to Ottoman Empire. The word "quarantine" originates from quarantena that means 40 days. This practice was used for ships against plague in middle ages. Yellow, green, and black flags were used to symbolize disease in ships. Invention of antibiotic drugs in 1928 petered out quarantine practices with time, yet quarantine is still essential for viral diseases.
Brave biologists invented antibiotic for tuberculosis, smallpox, plague and measles. SARS-CoV2 is challenge for virologists to come up with antiviral drugs. Drug manufacturers are racing against time to develop antiviral drugs for Covid-19. We suffer many diseases due to our artificial way of life incoherent with nature. The nature has separated different civilizations with vast deep oceans as planets and galaxies with space. Discovery of America in 1492 exchanged multiple bacterial and viral diseases between Europe and America which later spread worldwide through ships, railways and air lines. Those who emphasized globalization are now seen crying localization. Collective wisdom based global brain could not cope with coronaviruses. Sex workers in brothels complaining decline in their business due to Covit-19 [Frank 2020], though, one-man-one-woman wedding culture had evolved millenniums ago from fear of communicable diseases. Islamic strictly forbids prostitution yet allows up to four marriages to restrict relations. Covid-19 pandemic has made Islamic way of washes and hilal foods worldwide [Rose 2020].
Covid-19 pandemic is a very big epidemic in our times yet governments should pay attention to other data on public deaths which are a grave concern worldwide. Air pollution daily kills 3287 people in China, 3397 in India alone and 19178 worldwide. Air, soil and water pollutions kills 24657 every day. HIV/AIDS, Malaria and seasonal flue kill 4171, 2438 and 1208 people every day. Traffic accidents kill 3361 people every day and 2669 people commit suicide on social injustices. Alcohol kills 6223 daily and cigarettes kill 12,440 people every day. Government agencies are in panic during pandemic so the people must cooperate to contain the disease by stopping going to large gatherings [WM, 2020]. Coronavirus has killed many yet saved lives of 4,000 kids under 5 and 73,000 adults over 70 in China. Climate change and air pollution are fossil fuels driven phenomena which declined due to consumption of oil [Doyle 2020]. The implicit link of air pollution and climate change with coronavirus is mysterious, “the short answer is, very little; but the long answer is, everything is related." Climate change is threat multiplier for health system. It is good for us all to live in harmony with nature else nature will establish a new equilibrium, and we may not be part of it. We have seen our borders are artificial through which viruses can pass without visa. Rich elites are more worried about economic losses due to Covid-19, not widespread deaths.
Birds scatter in danger and gather in peace. They gather one by one and fly all together. Quarantine and social distancing are nature inspired strategies which successfully had overcome SARS in 2003 and MERS in 2013. Better sit in home than creating panic in bazar. Panic often results in hasty decisions that could potentially cause more harm. Panic forces public to buy and hoard everything, leaving nothing for others. Panic births chaos, chaos creates stress, stress interferes with our body’s defense systems and immunity, therefore panic puts us at a higher risk of becoming susceptible to the very concern we are panicking about. Young people with strong immune system are less susceptible to coronavirus than weak elders. SARS-CoV targeted people in median age group of 40s, MERS-CoV targeted 50s and Covid-19 targeting median age group of 60s.
SARS-CoV reached humans from bats through civet cats, MERS-CoV through camels and SARS-CoV2 through pangolins. Once the virus reaches humans then it spreads from person to persons. WHO and Chinese experts believe the COVID-19 is transmitted via droplets and fomites during close unprotected contact between an infector and infectee. The World Health Organization declared the coronavirus outbreak a Global Public Health Emergency on 30 January 2020 and pandemic on 11 March 2020 when Covid-19 spread to more than 121 countries and territories. It is not yet clear how coronavirus jumped from animals to humans. First human-to-human transmission occurred by close contacts in middle of December 2019. Touch, breath and food are viewed as possible routes for virus spread. As global supply chains break, airlines slash flights, borders rise within nation-states, stock exchanges convulse with fear, and recession looms over economies, from China to Germany, Australia to the United States, we can no longer doubt that we are living through extraordinary times [Pankraj 2020]. Indian Council of Medical Research announced to ramp up the country’s current testing capacity of 500 to 8,000 samples. Many countries have lower cases due to lack of testing facilities. India could next big hotspot if it has better coronavirus testing facilities [Muneeza 2020].
Covid-19 is believed to have jumped from bats to humans. Chinese eat wild animal meat and drink their soups. Coronaviruses occurs naturally in different animal species. Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus causes severe diarrhea and mortality in young piglets. Infectious Bronchitis Viruses affect poultry. Coronaviruses are responsible for causing common cold in humans. However, coronaviruses transferred from animals to humans can cause serious illnesses and respiratory infections as seen earlier in SARS and MERS cases. Transfer of covid-19 from animals to humans has deepened mystery [David 2020]. Islam has declared some animals Hilal (permitted) and others Haram (verboten) due to presence of 25,000 species of fleas on the bodies. Some of these verboten animals include pigs, bats, snakes and pangolins all eaten in China in routine [Asif 2020].
Social distancing strategy was used against plague in 6th, 14th and 19th centuries. First plague pandemic emerged in Middle East (Roman Empire), second pandemic evolved in Central Asia (Russian Empire) and third erupted in Eastern Asia (China). First, second and third plague pandemics killed 50 million in Middle East and Southern Europe, 33% European population (25 million) and 2.2 million in China. Official end of plague announced in 1959 when worldwide casualties dropped to 200 per year. Coronavirus is fourth pandemic after plague. Time will tell the casualties, morbidities and mortalities. China locked downed a few provinces and Italy locked down whole country. Australia banned travel to Italy and America has banned travel to both China and Europe [Andrew 2020]. State Department advised Americans to avoid foreign travel. The Australia may soon ban travel to Europe [Charlie 2020].
Natural ecosystems and climate create specific environment for spread of bacteria and viruses. Plague, small pox, tuberculosis and e-bola have been wreaking havocs in past. French physician Alexandre Yersin discovered plague bacteria in 19th century. Selman Waksman discovered medicine against tuberculosis in 20th century. Muyembe discovered antibody to treat E-Bola patients in 20th century. Marie Curie discovered use of nuclear radiations for treatment of cancer in 20th century. Earlier scientists discovered treatment of deadly diseases without very advanced laboratories available today. Natural disasters and calamities have increased in 21st century. Earthquakes, forest fires, flash floods and polar vortexes incidences inflict havocs of extremely cold and heat waves. Coronavirus has smashed the Chinese economy and adversely affected world communities. Pharmacists and biologists are working round the clock to find treatment against Covid-19 viruses [Lake 2020].
Coronavirus epidemic has limited access to churches, temples, synagogues, mosques, memorials, shrines and holy cities of Mecca and Medina. Saudi Arabia banned pilgrimage and Iran cancelled Friday prayers in major cities. The bishops of the various dioceses gave pastoral indications to replace the Sunday precept with ceremonies and prayers to be held at home. “In an effort to prevent the spread of the coronavirus, regional officials canceled the public celebration of Mass throughout much of northern Italy, and upended sacred rituals of Italian life”. Religion was blamed to be at heart of coronavirus spread in South Korea therefore South Korean government closed the churches on Sunday, with many holding online services instead, as authorities fought to rein in public gatherings due to rampantly rising coronavirus cases. Several countries have closed schools and universities from fear of covid-19 epidemic. There are 300 million children out of classrooms due to fear of contracting coronavirus worldwide [Amir 2020, RFERL 2020, ANIT 2020, Jason 2020, Hyonhee 2020, Ron 2020].
SARS too had affected China, but Chinese economy was only 4% in 2003 that now has grown to 16% of global GDP. Auto industry in China fell to 80% in February 2020. Chinese youth has become addicted to pricy cars, expensive smart phones and tourism. Multinational companies and supply chain systems have adversely affected by coronavirus infodemic. A British company has shut down its 24 stores in China. The Amzon supply chain system springs from China. Ship fleet are waiting in sea lines. US made 2 to 3 dollar hands sensitizer, PURELL, escalated to 22 to 25 dollars in market. Face masks prices increased 15 to 20 times in Pakistan. Many people are storing essential drugs in view of possible shortages in future. Chinese and South Korean banks are reducing interest rates and injecting money to keep markets alive. The stocks had lost $900 billion by first week of March 2020. World stock markets, manufacturing companies and supply chain systems grapple with fear of coronavirus. Covid-19 infodemic may reduce 50% of global development that World Bank expects to be 5% ($3000 billion) of global GDP.
Coronavirus infodemic has emptied religious, food, education, entertainment and most busy shopping places worldwide. Covid-19 epidemic has started affecting social events, cultural festivals, religious ceremonies and business activities worldwide. People fear hand shaking, hugging and touching surfaces in transport vehicles, shopping centers and public places. Consumers refuse receiving online deliveries from the coronavirus hit countries. Coronavirus fear is severely affecting trade, tourism, hotel and even online business industries [Rosamond 2020]. Small children love batman and superman type plastic toys but now they do not receive their online orders from fear of coronavirus. Covid-19 has not only affected goods supply chains systems but also academic calendars and food chains. Lockdown in China and Italy shows similar measures worldwide that freeze social and economic activities [Jonathan 2020].
Fast spread of Covid-19, from China to more than 120 countries, shows how deeply we are connected in global village. Our deep connections range from politics, economy and culture to technology and business [Humphrey 2020]. Our global interconnections, under globalization theory, have global effects and responses. Covid-19 has wiped $50 billion off global exports in February 2020 alone. World Bank allocated $12 billion and IMF injected $50 billion to vulnerable countries [IMF 2020]. G-7 Economies announced strengthening efforts to expand health services and fiscal measures to aid in response to the coronavirus and support the economy during outbreak [BBC 2020]. Merkel warns up to 70% German could contract Covid-19 that means 58 million people in Germany and zillions worldwide.
Coronavirus has cut emissions faster than years of climate negotiations. Does the outbreak reveal what life might be like if we were to act seriously on climate change? Or what it might be like if we don't? Covid-19 has slashed emissions by 25%, not because of the climate crisis, but the COVID-19 public health emergency. Wuhan, the 11 million-strong Hubei province city at the center of the coronavirus outbreak has been on lockdown since late January. With businesses and factories in the province shuttered, and hundreds of millions of people across the country rendered immobile by sweeping travel restrictions, the atmosphere above China in NASA satellite images appears virtually clean of nitrous oxide emissions. The global growth is predicted to slow and oil demand has fallen faster than at any time since the 2008 financial crash [Ruby 2020]. Climate change proponents and opponents are both facing Covid-19 crisis. Oil producers consider coronavirus and climate change a bolt out of blue and poor oil importing nations a divine support. Oil prices fell from $70 a barrel to $30 a barrel due to coronavirus. It is rock bottom, yet it may fall further. Oil industry has virtually entered a death-knell phase [Jillian 2020].
Covid-19 cases surpassed 184,000 in more than 162 countries on 17 March 2020. Covid-19 cases are in tens of thousands in Italy, several thousands in China, Iran, South Korea, Spain, France, Germany and USA. Active coronavirus cases have declined in China and on rise in rest of the world, especially, Italy, Iran, South Korea, Spain, France, Germany and USA. According to worldometers currently there 8,952 active coronavirus cases in China and 23,073 only in Italy. It is noted that 45% deaths occurred in China and 55% in rest of more than 162 countries. Space and time scales make Covid-19 epidemic a pandemic, declares WHO [Jamie 2020]. CNN has been calling it pandemic since many weeks.
Thermophiles thrive in hot environment and chionophile animals thrive in cold environment. Researchers are interested in knowing the route the Covid-19 followed to reach first to human then from person to person worldwide. Developing story shows the Covid-19 virus transferred from animals to humans through food chain system then stimulated transfer from by touch and airlines. Leaders are doubling down against the coronavirus pandemic and laggards are downplaying against this deadly viral disease. Take action before you are quarantined, warn health experts.
An extremophile is an organism that thrives in extreme environments. A thermophile thrives (archaea) at relatively high temperatures, between 41°C and 122°C. Optimal temperature for the existence of hyperthermophiles is often above 80°C. Thermophiles are found near springs, geysers, fumaroles and hydrothermal vents. Chionophiles are any organisms (polar bears, hare, and fungi) that can thrive bellow -15°C temperatures. Arctic, Antarctic and Himalayan animals can thrive in harsh chilly environment [James 1989]. Chinese eat incompletely cooked foods that might have paved the way for Covid-19 to reach Chinese people from whom it spread worldwide.
Climate change causes extreme weather events, which affect plants, animals and humans. Humans are less exposed to harsh weathers than plants and animals. Time takes years and centuries to develop the situations in which extreme events occur and affect living species. Thermophiles and chionophiles interact with one another at hot or cold temperatures to change their body borne viruses. Coronavirus is often associated with bats that cannot survive freezing temperatures. Virus transfer may occur when animals eat bat’s meat [Ajon 2011]. Water inside lobsters and fishes solidifies below -5°C. Animals eat one another at low temperature to satiate their appetite. Covid-19 led business disruptions may trigger hunger crisis that is more dangerous than everything else.
Health experts fear from escalating covid-19 epidemic into pandemic whilst political pundits regard it a matter of Public Health concern, at the moment, there is no real pandemic outside Mainland China. We need to know who is behind this false pandemic [Michel 2020]. Prof Michel Chossudovsky calls it “quite the opposite: A “Fear Pandemic” rather than a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) was launched”. It is like 2009 H1N1 Swine Flu Pandemic that was actually a local epidemic. Philip Giraldi claims, “It might be possible that Washington has created and unleashed the virus in a bid to bring Beijing’s growing economy and military might down a few notches”. He argues that most affected countries are China and Iran both hostile to America and Israel [Philip 2020]. Many theorized Covid-19 to be Chinese DNA specific bioweapon that proved wrong, when this virus spread to more than 196 countries. It is affecting everybody like Chinese [Peter 2020].
We need air, food and water to thrive. Airs, birds and animals do not care border barriers. Air pollution and GHG emissions at one place can affect people half a world away. We live in an interconnected world where a viral disease in one country affects the whole of globe. Being part of nature, we started occupying nature using nuclear and biochemical weapons. Viruses can jump from wild animals to humans, yet our own bioweapons are also a big danger. Our collective failure to contain coronavirus may lead us all to a disastrous situation in coming weeks, not months. Total cases in Italy surpassed China three days ago then total cases in USA surpassed both China and Italy. Total cases in Spain have already surpassed China and Germany, France and Iran are also following steadily.
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Source: Ocnus.net 2020