The dark side of something means its hidden negative aspect. The dark side of the sun refers to dark side of intermittent renewable energy sources, global warming and mass extinction during fuel transition actions. The sun is the ultimate source of energy in our universe. The sun fuses 600 million tons of matter into neutrinos, solar radiations and 4 octillion watts of energy in every second. Solar luminosity increases 1% after every 100 million years. The sun has increased 30% luminosity in last 4.5 billion years and is likely to increase another 10% in next 1.1 billion years. This is natural increase in average temperature that may increase further by the Greenhouse Effect. The sun delivers light and heat energies to drive wind flows, rivers runs and forests fosters. Impact of rising solar luminosity may cause global warming, droughts, glaciers thawing, hurricanes and flash floods. Sun’s fuel transitions during its life cycle from hydrogen to helium, helium to carbon and carbon to neon and other elements is shown in Fig.1
Fig.1 Sun’s fuel transitions over its ten billion years life cycle
Star’s life may vary from 10 to 15 billion years. The stars fuse hydrogen atoms into heaver atoms like helium, carbon, neon, oxygen, silicon and iron. The nuclear fusion reaction shifts to helium or carbon after depletion of hydrogen or helium fuels. The sun shrinks to smaller size to raise internal temperature to ignite nuclear fusion on helium during first fuel transition. The sun expands in size to equate the inward gravitational and outward explosive forces. This fuel transition happens long before ultimate death of the star. Solar expansion may increase temperature a level that does not allow life to sustain on the earth. The science of the sun is based on the fate of dead stars in space. Hydrogen fusion in sun gives off yellow light whilst helium fuel gives off aquamarine, carbon azure, neon blue, oxygen magenta, silicon pink and iron red color lights. Multiple color stars in NASA pictures show the type of fuel these stars use in their seven possible fuel transition states in their lives. Our sun is a medium temperature star and all stars make light of different colors because of their different temperatures. Cool stars shine in red or orange, medium temperature stars in yellow, and the hottest stars give off blue light. However, temperature level and photonic fusion results in white light in space around the sun.
In short, in the end, the nuclear furnace at the center of every star begins to overheat. To put numbers on this, when the Sun was formed 4.5 billion years ago it was about 30% dimmer than at present. At the end of the next 4.8 billion years, the Sun will be about 67% brighter than it is now. In the 1.6 billion years following that, the Sun's luminosity will rise to a lethal 2.2 Lo. (Lo = present Sun.) The Earth by then will have been roasted to bare rock, its oceans and all its life boiled away by a looming Sun that will be some 60% larger than at present.4 The surface temperature on the Earth will be in excess of 600 F°. But even this version of the Sun is still stable and golden compared to what is to come.
The sun produces light, heat and radiations by fusing hydrogen atoms into helium atoms. Hydrogen atoms also react with helium to form carbon and oxygen atoms. Hydrogen fusion into helium occurs at 15 million °C, helium fusion into carbon and oxygen at 100 million °C and carbon fusion to higher elements at 650 million °C. Hydrogen fusion produces lesser repulsive forces compared to gravity that keeps sun size smaller compared to helium and carbon fusions, which will swell sun size to earth. This seems to be scenario what Quran says the sun will come close to earth on Doomsday.
Solar swelling will evaporate oceans and roast all forms of life on planet. NASA Space programs are a great service to humanity. Humans will the last species to on planet who might migrate to another planet during this zillions years. Young children take more interest in space science than engineering and social science. NASA should extend its training programs to foreign youngsters too who are inspired to contribute. It is time to globalize and internationalize space science and climate change studies. NASA should act as bee not fly to choose real nectar spread worldwide. First author spends 50% of free time on brainstorming various ways of inventing solar powered space vehicles to populate nearby planets.
The sun is a luminous ball in sky empowering life on earth. The dark side of the sun refers to the solar flares, winds and storms resulting in intense light, heat and electromagnetic radiations. Solar sphere, during transition from hydrogen to helium and carbon fusions, expands to incorporate nearby planets. Our young sun can unleash giant superflare, large plume of charged particles, can knock out power grid, electronic systems and satellites [Howell 2019]. Sun produces energy in one second more than 6 billion nuclear plants on earth can produce in one year. Photons in core take millions of years to reach the surface of sun from where the traverse 93 million miles distance to earth in just 8 minutes. Sun releases solar winds of 1 million ton of charged gases every second. Superflares in stars make them 1000 times more brighter staying for many days. Superflare radiations can deplete all ozone and its heat can turn winter day into summer day causing polar lights glow all around the globe.
NOAA observed a solar flare emanating from sun in 1999. Sun spots are followed by solar flares. Few days later millions amperes current in power lines inflicted nine hours blackout in Canada. Six million people went without electricity. The only light in sky that night was punk glow of northern lights. These polar lights are caused by reaction of solar winds with oxygen and nitrogen atoms in atmosphere. Scientists in Colorado noted high frequency communication failures in 2005 due to solar storms. Imagine the failure of mobile, satellite, TV, internet and airplane communications. These radiations are dangerous for astronauts in space. Ozone layer in atmosphere can protect us against solar flares on earth, not in space. Intense solar flares are dangerous as much as gamma rays during nuclear explosion.
The sun uses hydrogen as primary fuel. Hydrogen starts fusing into helium at 14million degrees. When hydrogen runs out the explosive forces become lesser than solar gravity. The sun starts shrinking in size under gravity. When temperature in sun’s core rises to 100 million degrees the helium atoms starts fusing into carbon and oxygen. Helium fueled fusion energy forces sun expand until balanced by gravity. The sun may swell out to mercury, Venus and Earth. When sun runs out of helium star starts shrinking again. Carbon fusion starts when temperature in core reaches 600 to 700 million degrees. Carbon fusion will swell the sun again to swallow the remote planets. Carbon fusion is followed by oxygen fusion and nuclear fusion processes continue in big suns until heavier elements fuse with one another to form iron after which sun explodes into a white dwarf or black hole.
Solar flares have energies up to 97 Zeta Btu. Solar storms throw charged particles toward earth causing dancing polar lights. A solar flare produces a cloud of electrically charged particles may interfere with the Earth’s magnetic field and can potentially short circuit electrical grids. However, it is possible to switch off grids as solar flare takes 8 minutes to reach the earth. Solar flares consist of heat energy, magnetic energy, ionizing radiation including X-rays and gamma rays. Thanks to protective sheath of atmosphere that absorbs all these ionizing radiations before reaching earth’s surface. The atmosphere around Earth is composed of nitrogen (78%), oxygen (21%), argon (0.9%), carbon dioxide (0.04%) and other rare gases. Oxygen is used by the living organisms for respiration, nitrogen is fixed by bacteria in nature and lightning in thunderstorms to produce ammonia used in the construction of nucleotides and amino acids, and carbon dioxide produced in life giving process is used by plants, algae and cyanobacteria for photosynthesis. The atmosphere helps to protect living organisms from genetic damage by solar ultraviolet radiation, solar wind and cosmic rays.
The sun is the ultimate source of energy on the earth. The earth receives 1.73x1017 W energy in the form of heat and light against total demand of 18x1012 W. The sun releases total 4.6x1026 W energy into our solar system. Total energy of Milky Way galaxy is estimated to be 1.38x1038 W. Assuming 100 billion galaxies in observable universe the total energy is estimated to be 1.38x1049 W. However, total energy of cosmos is zero due to 50% positive matter and 50% negative gravity energies [Tyron 1973]. The vacuum energy is the underlying background energy existing in space of entire Universe. Vacuum energy effects include spontaneous emission, the Casimir effect and the Lamb shift phenomena. According to Sean Carroll vacuum energy of free space is estimated to be 10-9 J/m3, whereas Peter Milonni claims it to be 10113 J/m3, and huge difference is referred to the cosmological constant problem.
Einstein’s cosmological constant is assumed equivalent to the zero energy [Einstein 1917]. The zero energy universe theory claims the universe emerged from quantum fluctuation of vacuum energy resulting in positive mass-energy balanced by negative gravitational potential energy. The vacuum energy may also be imagined composed of virtual particles creating and annihilating particle and antiparticle pairs. Energy of vacuum is infinite that may be measured as zero-point energy (E=0.5hn). Stephen Hawking hypnotized the existence of virtual particles near event horizon. If one particle goes into black hole then remaining part becomes positive energy. This non-zero vacuum energy accelerates the expansion of universe. This vacuum energy is sometimes considered basis of free energy machines.
Life existed on earth more than one billion years ago in the form of single and multiple cell species. However, life flourished from invertebrates to vertebrates on earth in Permian era 500 million years ago. More than 90% species have no spine even today only 9.9% swimming, walking and flying animals have horizontal spine. Evolution of vertebrates in deep sea and tall mountains is called evolutionary leap. Backbone helped increase size of mammalians, amphibians and reptiles 200 to 300 million years ago [Elizabeth 2018]. Dinasurs evolved 240 million years ago, ruled planet for 175 million years and eventually died 65 million years ago by massive asteroid collision [Catharine 2017]. All vertebrates evolved from earth have horizontal spine. Humans seem to be aliens, who have vertical spines [Josh 2016]. Darwin and Huxley in their great chain of being called the transition of animals into humans a Missing Link [Reader 2011]. Evolution or creation is a long debate both sides unable to refute each other. Abrahamic religions believe in creation rest all in creation or evolution variably.
This universe is 14 to 15 years old and our solar system came into existence just 4.5 years ago. Mass extinctions ended 70 to 90% species five times in past. Collision of subcontinent with Eurasia produced Himalayas in Asia and large scale changes in rest of the world. Zillion years later tectonic shifts will transform land into a contiguous land mass. Along ago earthquakes shattered earth and buried plants and animal remains 1 to 140km deep in earth. Sustained high pressures and temperatures converted upper layer fossils into coal, middle layer into natural gas and bottom layers into oil. Fossils buried in 140 to 180km depths were converted into diamonds that came on surface by volcanic eruptions. If you drill tens miles deep hole in earth and film the walls with fiber optic coupled camera that would look like a valley of red, green and blue diamond crystals. Diamonds rain on Jupiter and Saturn is also result of high pressure on gas planets [Nigel 2017]. Tectonic shifts and geological activities transfer minerals on earth’s surface. Earth core has temperature as sun’s surface.
Fossil records show the first mass extinction (Ordovician Extinction) killed 60-70% species on planet 445 MYA due to short intense Ice Age. Second mass extinction (Devonian Extinction) killed 75% species on planet 375-360 MYA due to oxygen depletion in oceans. Third mass extinction (Permian Extinction) killed 95% species on planet 252 MYA due to internal volcanic activities. Fourth mass extinction (Triassic Extinction) killed 70-80% species on earth 200 MYA due to global warming (thermal runaway). Fifth mass extinction (Cretaceous Extinction) killed 75% species on earth 66 MYA due to external asteroid impact. Now earth is heading towards sixth mass extinction (Holocene Extinction) by fossil fuels combustion driven climate change and pollution. Ocean ecosystem takes two million years to rebuild after mass single mass extinction event.
World community may differ on anything, but has undisputed consensus on the fact that everything which is born will have to die at the end of its life. Like plants, animals and humans all the stars die— in about 5 billion years — our sun too. Once its supply of hydrogen is exhausted, the final, dramatic stages of its life will unfolds by expansion into a red giant that later tears its body to pieces to condense into a white dwarf or a black hole. When then sun will run out of fuel it will swell out to swallow the nearby planets. Earth’s temperature will rise, oceans will evaporate, atmosphere will gush away into space and mountains may meltdown be red giant swallows earth. As the sun gets old potential risks will increase. NASA has sent Genesis to Solar Probe missions in space to understand sun. Sun’s life is estimated by its sound pitch getting softer over time [Utube 2016]. Solar heat will increase in future that aspect should be considered in climate change theories. Increase in heat by solar swelling will evaporate oceans and dry plants making it hard to drink and breathe. Food supply chain disruption will kill the survivors. At 1130am on sundial the temperature will rise to 160°F. Daylight heat would be intolerable only night time activities would be possible. Death Valley in USA dried out 10,000 years ago due to climate change. Even if earth does not touch the sun due to return of sun there will be no air, water and food for the survivors, if any. Humans will either migrate to Mars or would be the last species to die on earth.
This might happen zillions years later, at the moment, there is no risk of large scale catastrophe. Climate change is occurring due to human activities worldwide wide. Heat waves are consequences of terrestrial climate changes and celestial bodies may also not be ignored. A superflare may wipe out electric grid, telecommunication systems and satellites. Sun gives off light, heat and radiations in his life by converting lighter elements into bigger elements from C to Fe and at end of life bursts as supernova, with heat equal to 4 billion suns, to form heavier elements from Fe to U. Scientists say if someone visits earth after one billion years then there would be no water, no plant and no humans on earth. Earth’s fate is destined to become Venus like planet at the end of the day.
Earth’s climate and ecosystem is indirectly governed by the sun. When sun runs short of fuels it will become first red giant then white dwarf. It is difficult to forecast where would go humans? Humans are aliens on earth as all terrestrial animals have horizontal backbones, except humans. According to new scientific theories the human beings evolved elsewhere in the universe and were brought to Earth by an alien civilization to thrive, according to a new theory from a scientist who has been analyzing the evolution of the human race [Sean 2018].
The Sun's Evolution
E Howell, Sun Could Unleash a 'Superflare' Hundreds of Thousands of Times More Powerful Than Any Known Flare, Live Science, 12 June 2019. https://www.livescience.com/65699-sun-superflares-100-years.html
E.P. Tryon, "Is the Universe a Vacuum Fluctuation?", Nature, vol. 246, p.396–397, 1973. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1973Natur.246..396T
Einstein, A. (1917). "Kosmologische Betrachtungen zur allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie". Sitzungsberichte der Königlich Preußischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Berlin, DE. part 1: 142–152
Elizabeth P, The evolution of the spine fueled the rise of mammals—and human back problems, Science Magazine, 20 September 2018. https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2018/09/evolution-spine-fueled-rise-mammals-and-human-back-problems
Catharine G, A Brief History of Dinosaurs, Live Science, 23 March 2017. https://www.livescience.com/3945-history-dinosaurs.html
Josh G, Earth - Why we have a spine, when over 90% of animals don't, BBC, 15 August 2016. http://www.bbc.com/earth/story/20160812-why-we-have-a-spine-when-over-90-of-animals-dont
Reader J, Missing Links: In Search of Human Origins, Oxford University Press, 2011.
Nigel H, The secret of how diamonds are made, BBC, 2 March 2017. http://www.bbc.com/earth/story/20170301-the-secret-of-how-diamonds-are-made-by-nature
U Tube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QuHr3ErT34I, Naked Science 7 December 2016.
Sean M, SHOCK CLAIM: Humans evolved on another planet and were brought to Earth by ALIENS, Express, 3 February 2018. https://www.express.co.uk/news/science/913801/aliens-ufo-life-on-earth-alien-news-human-origin-extraterrestrial